Natural stone is formed over time with water, minerals, and elements like heat or pressure. Stones like travertine are created with the slow accumulation and layering of various materials. Some transform under extreme heat and pressure to become other stones, like marble. Natural stones like granite form when rock is melted by magma and reformed into stone before cooling down.
For the extraction of natural stone, there are stone quarries where giant blocks are cut using equipment like diamond-coated saws. These giant blocks can weigh as much 40,000 pounds and require heavy machinery to get them out of the quarry. The massive stone blocks are loaded onto trucks and transported to a factory.
At the factory, the blocks are cut into tile sizes to fit the shapes and dimensions that you see in the final product. There are multiple types of cuts depending on the material and end product. Each stone surface can have different finishes applied for different aesthetic effects. Because it is natural, stone can last for a lifetime when well prepared and maintained.